front cover of Challenges of Globalization in the Measurement of National Accounts
Challenges of Globalization in the Measurement of National Accounts
Edited by Nadim Ahmad, Brent R. Moulton, J. David Richardson, and Peter van de Ven
University of Chicago Press, 2023

An essential collection at the intersection of globalization, production supply chains, corporate finance regulation, and economic measurement.

The substantial increase in the complexity of global supply chains and other production arrangements over the past three decades has challenged some traditional measures of national income account aggregates and raised the potential for distortions in conventional calculations of GDP and productivity. This volume examines a variety of multinational business activities and assesses their impact on economic measurement. Several chapters consider how global supply chains complicate the interpretation of traditional trade statistics and how new measurement techniques can provide information about global production arrangements. Other chapters examine the role of intangible capital in global production, including the output of factoryless goods producers and the problems of measuring R&D in a globalized world. The studies in this volume also explore potential ways to enhance the quality of the national accounts by improving data collection and analysis and by updating the standards for measurement.


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Challenging the Performance Movement
Accountability, Complexity, and Democratic Values
Beryl A. Radin
Georgetown University Press, 2006

"Accountability" is a watchword of our era. Dissatisfaction with a range of public and private institutions is widespread and often expressed in strong critical rhetoric. The reasons for these views are varied and difficult to translate into concrete action, but this hasn't deterred governments and nongovernmental organizations from putting into place formal processes for determining whether their own and others' goals have been achieved and problems with performance have been avoided.

In this thought-provoking book, government and public administration scholar Beryl Radin takes on many of the assumptions of the performance movement, arguing that evaluation relies too often on simplistic, one-size-fits-all solutions that are not always effective for dynamic organizations. Drawing on a wide range of ideas, including theories of intelligence and modes of thought, assumptions about numbers and information, and the nature of professionalism, Radin sheds light on the hidden complexities of creating standards to evaluate performance. She illustrates these problems by discussing a range of program areas, including health efforts as well as the education program, "No Child Left Behind."

Throughout, the author devotes particular attention to concerns about government standards, from accounting for issues of equity to allowing for complicated intergovernmental relationships and fragmentation of powers. She explores in detail how recent performance measurement efforts in the U.S. government have fared, and analyzes efforts by nongovernmental organizations both inside and outside of the United States to impose standards of integrity and equity on their governments. The examination concludes with alternative assumptions and lessons for those embarking on performance measurement activities.


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Choice, Welfare and Measurement
Amartya Sen
Harvard University Press, 1999
Choice, Welfare and Measurement contains many of Amartya Sen's most important contributions to economic analysis and methods, including papers on choice, preference, rationality, aggregation, and measurement. A substantial introductory essay interrelates his diverse concerns, and also analyzes discussions generated by the original papers, focusing on the underlying issues.

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Economic Losses from Marine Pollution
A Handbook For Assessment
Douglas D. Ofiara and Joseph J. Seneca
Island Press, 2001
Marine pollution causes significant damage to fisheries and other economically productive uses of the ocean. The value of that damage can be quantified by economists, but the meanings of those valuations and how they are derived are often obscure to noneconomists.Economic Losses from Marine Pollution brings a fuller understanding of the variety and extent of marine losses and how they are assessed to scientists, lawyers, and environmentalists by systematically identifying and classifying marine losses and relating them to models and methods of economic valuation. The authors use a step-by-step approach to show how economists have used these methods and how they approach the problem of assessing economic damage.The book begins by describing the importance of economic valuation of marine damages, the history of concern over marine pollution, and the development of economic methodologies to assess damage from it. Following that, the book: considers types of marine pollution and their effects on organisms, ecosystems, and humans, and the corresponding economic effects of those biological impacts introduces the economic principles and methods needed to understand and to assess economic damages expresses losses from water quality impairments in terms of economic value introduces the basic economic techniques that have been developed and used to measure changes in economic value discusses how to apply those economic techniques, and presents a variety of practical examples explores limitations and problems that can arise in such applied work.Economic Losses from Marine Pollution includes all of the relevant economic theory together with specific examples of how that theory has been and can be applied. It offers environmental professionals with little or no background in economics the basic economic tools needed to understand economic valuations of environmental damage, and represents a unique handbook for environmental and marine scientists, lawyers, economists, policy professionals, and anyone interested in issues of marine water quality.

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Electromagnetic Field Standards and Exposure Systems
Eugeniusz Grudzinski
The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2014
Electromagnetic Field Standards and Exposure Systems covers the broader fields of measurements in telecommunications, radio navigation, radio astronomy, bioscience, and free ranging EM radiation and helps to develop the following measurement standards;

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Electromagnetic Measurements in the Near Field
Pawel Bienkowski
The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2012
This book is devoted to the specific problems of electromagnetic field (EMF) measurements in the near field and to the analysis of the main factors which impede accuracy in these measurements. It focuses on careful and accurate design of systems to measure in the near field based on a thorough understanding of the fundamental engineering principles and on an analysis of the likely system errors. Beginning with a short introduction to electromagnetic fields with an emphasis on the near field, it then presents methods of EMF measurements in near field conditions. It details the factors limiting measurement accuracy including internal ones (thermal stability, frequency response, dynamic characteristics, susceptibility) and external ones (field integration, mutual couplings between a probe and primary and secondary EMF sources, directional pattern deformations). It continues with a discussion on how to gauge the parameters declared by an EMF meter manufacturer and simple methods for testing these parameters. It also details how designers of measuring equipment can reconsider the near field when designing and testing, as well as how users can exploit the knowledge within the book to ensure their tests and results contain the most accurate measurements possible. The SciTech Publishing Series on Electromagnetic Compatibility provides a continuously growing body of knowledge in the latest development and best practices in electromagnetic compatibility engineering. This series provides specialist and non-specialist professionals and students practical knowledge that is thoroughly grounded in relevant theory.

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Evaluation Of Joint Motion
Methods of Measurement and Recording
Dortha Esch
University of Minnesota Press, 1974

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Field Techniques for Sea-Ice Research
Edited by Hajo Eicken and Maya Salganek
University of Alaska Press, 2009

As much as one-tenth of the world’s oceans are covered with sea ice, or frozen ocean water, at some point during the annual cycle. Sea ice thus plays an important, often defining, role in the natural environment and the global climate system. This book is a global look at the changes in sea ice and the tools and techniques used to measure and record those changes. The first comprehensive research done on sea-ice field techniques, this volume will be indispensable for the study of northern sea ice and a must-have for scientists in the field of climate change research.


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Gravity's Shadow
The Search for Gravitational Waves
Harry Collins
University of Chicago Press, 2004
According to the theory of relativity, we are constantly bathed in gravitational radiation. When stars explode or collide, a portion of their mass becomes energy that disturbs the very fabric of the space-time continuum like ripples in a pond. But proving the existence of these waves has been difficult; the cosmic shudders are so weak that only the most sensitive instruments can be expected to observe them directly. Fifteen times during the last thirty years scientists have claimed to have detected gravitational waves, but so far none of those claims have survived the scrutiny of the scientific community. Gravity's Shadow chronicles the forty-year effort to detect gravitational waves, while exploring the meaning of scientific knowledge and the nature of expertise.

Gravitational wave detection involves recording the collisions, explosions, and trembling of stars and black holes by evaluating the smallest changes ever measured. Because gravitational waves are so faint, their detection will come not in an exuberant moment of discovery but through a chain of inference; for forty years, scientists have debated whether there is anything to detect and whether it has yet been detected. Sociologist Harry Collins has been tracking the progress of this research since 1972, interviewing key scientists and delineating the social process of the science of gravitational waves.

Engagingly written and authoritatively comprehensive, Gravity's Shadow explores the people, institutions, and government organizations involved in the detection of gravitational waves. This sociological history will prove essential not only to sociologists and historians of science but to scientists themselves.

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A Guide to the Measurement of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites
Angela von den Driesch
Harvard University Press, 1976
Von den Driesch's handbook is the standard tool used by faunal analysts working on animal and bird assemblages from around the world. Developed for the instruction of students working on osteoarchaeological theses at the University of Munich, the guide has standardized how animal bones recovered from prehistoric and early historic sites are measured.

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A Handbook for EMC Testing and Measurement
David Morgan
The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 1994
During the 1980s the worldwide interest in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) grew rapidly with the introduction of legislation to control the growing interference problems generated by the increased use of electronic equipment in industry and in the home. The European directive harmonising EMC measurements gave particular impetus to manufacturers and importers of electrical and electronic equipment in Europe to understand EMC design techniques and verification procedures. This book explains how equipment can be verified by testing. It discusses the nature of EMC standards world wide and describes in detail testing methods and their conduct and accuracy. In addition to standard EMC testing, topics including electrostatic discharge, nuclear electromagnetic pulse and lightning are also discussed.

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The Handbook of Electrical Resistivity
New materials and pressure effects
Gordon Dyos
The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2012
This book updates and expands the editor's acclaimed Electrical Resistivity Handbook, bringing together advances in the field over the last two decades. In this period, much has been achieved in the fields of new materials and superconductivity.

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Harnessing Farms and Forests in the Low-Carbon Economy
How to Create, Measure, and Verify Greenhouse Gas Offsets
Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions and Zach Willey and Bill Chameides, editors, eds.
Duke University Press, 2007
As the United States moves to a low-carbon economy in order to combat global warming, credits for reducing carbon dioxide emissions will increasingly become a commodity that is bought and sold on the open market. Farmers and other landowners can benefit from this new economy by conducting land management practices that help sequester carbon dioxide, creating credits they can sell to industry to “offset” industrial emissions of greenhouse gases.

This guide is the first comprehensive technical publication providing direction to landowners for sequestering carbon and information for traders and others who will need to verify the sequestration. It will provide invaluable direction to farmers, foresters, land managers, consultants, brokers, investors, regulators, and others interested in creating consistent, credible greenhouse gas offsets as a tradable commodity in the United States.

The guide contains a non-technical section detailing methodologies for scoping of the costs and benefits of a proposed project, quantifying offsets of various sorts under a range of situations and conditions, and verifying and registering the offsets. The technical section provides specific information for quantifying, verifying, and regulating offsets from agricultural and forestry practices.

Visit the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions website for audio from the press conference announcing the book.
Read the press release announcing the book.


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Higher-Order Techniques in Computational Electromagnetics
Roberto D. Graglia
The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2016
Improvements in the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics (including antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications) can be achieved through the use of 'high-order' techniques. This book outlines these techniques by presenting high-order basis functions, explaining their use, and illustrating their performance. The specific basis functions under consideration were developed by the authors, and include scalar and vector functions for use with equations such as the vector Helmholtz equation and the electric field integral equation.

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Improving the Measurement of Consumer Expenditures
Edited by Christopher D. Carroll, Thomas F. Crossley, and John Sabelhaus
University of Chicago Press, 2015
Robust and reliable measures of consumer expenditures are essential for analyzing aggregate economic activity and for measuring differences in household circumstances. Many countries, including the United States, are embarking on ambitious projects to redesign surveys of consumer expenditures, with the goal of better capturing economic heterogeneity. This is an appropriate time to examine the way consumer expenditures are currently measured, and the challenges and opportunities that alternative approaches might present.      

Improving the Measurement of Consumer Expenditures begins with a comprehensive review of current methodologies for collecting consumer expenditure data. Subsequent chapters highlight the range of different objectives that expenditure surveys may satisfy, compare the data available from consumer expenditure surveys with that available from other sources, and describe how the United States’s current survey practices compare with those in other nations.

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The Institutional Revolution
Measurement and the Economic Emergence of the Modern World
Douglas W. Allen
University of Chicago Press, 2011

Few events in the history of humanity rival the Industrial Revolution. Following its onset in eighteenth-century Britain, sweeping changes in agriculture, manufacturing, transportation, and technology began to gain unstoppable momentum throughout Europe, North America, and eventually much of the world—with profound effects on socioeconomic and cultural conditions.

In The Institutional Revolution, Douglas W. Allen offers a thought-provoking account of another, quieter revolution that took place at the end of the eighteenth century and allowed for the full exploitation of the many new technological innovations. Fundamental to this shift were dramatic changes in institutions, or the rules that govern society, which reflected significant improvements in the ability to measure performance—whether of government officials, laborers, or naval officers—thereby reducing the role of nature and the hazards of variance in daily affairs. Along the way, Allen provides readers with a fascinating explanation of the critical roles played by seemingly bizarre institutions, from dueling to the purchase of one’s rank in the British Army.
Engagingly written, The Institutional Revolution traces the dramatic shift from premodern institutions based on patronage, purchase, and personal ties toward modern institutions based on standardization, merit, and wage labor—a shift which was crucial to the explosive economic growth of the Industrial Revolution.

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International Economic Transactions
Issues in Measurement and Empirical Research
Edited by Peter Hooper and J. David Richardson
University of Chicago Press, 1991
How the government arrives at its official economic statistics deeply influences the lives of every American. Social Security payments and even some wages are linked to import prices through official inflation rates; special measures of national product are necessary for valid comparisons of vital social indicators such as relative standards of living and relative poverty. Poor information can result in poor policies. And yet, federal statistics agencies have been crippled by serious budget cuts—and more cuts may lie ahead.

Questioning the quality of current data and analytical procedures, this ambitious volume proposes innovative research designs and methods for data enhancement, and offers new data on trade prices and service transactions for future studies. Leading researchers address the measurement of international trade flows and prices, including the debate over measurement of computer prices and national productivity; compare international levels of manufacturing output; and assess the extent to which the United States has fallen into debt to the rest of the world.

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The Making of Measure and the Promise of Sameness
Emanuele Lugli
University of Chicago Press, 2019
An interdisciplinary history of standardized measurements.

Measurement is all around us—from the circumference of a pizza to the square footage of an apartment, from the length of a newborn baby to the number of miles between neighboring towns. Whether inches or miles, centimeters or kilometers, measures of distance stand at the very foundation of everything we do, so much so that we take them for granted. Yet, this has not always been the case.

This book reaches back to medieval Italy to speak of a time when measurements were displayed in the open, showing how such a deceptively simple innovation triggered a chain of cultural transformations whose consequences are visible today on a global scale. Drawing from literary works and frescoes, architectural surveys, and legal compilations, Emanuele Lugli offers a history of material practices widely overlooked by historians. He argues that the public display of measurements in Italy’s newly formed city republics not only laid the foundation for now centuries-old practices of making, but also helped to legitimize local governments and shore up church power, buttressing fantasies of exactitude and certainty that linger to this day.

This ambitious, truly interdisciplinary book explains how measurements, rather than being mere descriptors of the real, themselves work as powerful molds of ideas, affecting our notions of what we consider similar, accurate, and truthful.

front cover of Measurement
Paul Lockhart
Harvard University Press, 2012

For seven years, Paul Lockhart’s A Mathematician’s Lament enjoyed a samizdat-style popularity in the mathematics underground, before demand prompted its 2009 publication to even wider applause and debate. An impassioned critique of K–12 mathematics education, it outlined how we shortchange students by introducing them to math the wrong way. Here Lockhart offers the positive side of the math education story by showing us how math should be done. Measurement offers a permanent solution to math phobia by introducing us to mathematics as an artful way of thinking and living.

In conversational prose that conveys his passion for the subject, Lockhart makes mathematics accessible without oversimplifying. He makes no more attempt to hide the challenge of mathematics than he does to shield us from its beautiful intensity. Favoring plain English and pictures over jargon and formulas, he succeeds in making complex ideas about the mathematics of shape and motion intuitive and graspable. His elegant discussion of mathematical reasoning and themes in classical geometry offers proof of his conviction that mathematics illuminates art as much as science.

Lockhart leads us into a universe where beautiful designs and patterns float through our minds and do surprising, miraculous things. As we turn our thoughts to symmetry, circles, cylinders, and cones, we begin to see that almost anyone can “do the math” in a way that brings emotional and aesthetic rewards. Measurement is an invitation to summon curiosity, courage, and creativity in order to experience firsthand the playful excitement of mathematical work.


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The Measurement of Capital
Edited by Dan Usher
University of Chicago Press, 1980
How is real capital measured by government statistical agencies? How could this measure be improved to correspond more closely to an economist's ideal measure of capital in economic analysis and prediction? It is possible to construct a single, reliable time series for all capital goods, regardless of differences in vintage, technological complexity, and rates of depreciation? These questions represent the common themes of this collection of papers, originally presented at a 1976 meeting of the Conference on Income and Wealth.

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The Measurement of Durable Goods Prices
Robert J. Gordon
University of Chicago Press, 1990
American business has recently been under fire, charged with inflated pricing and an inability to compete in the international marketplace. However, the evidence presented in this volume shows that the business community has been unfairly maligned—official measures of inflation and the standard of living have failed to account for progress in the quality of business equipment and consumer goods. Businesses have actually achieved higher productivity at lower prices, and new goods are lighter, faster, more energy efficient, and more reliable than their predecessors.

Robert J. Gordon has written the first full-scale work to treat the extent of quality changes over the entire range of durable goods, from autos to aircraft, computers to compressors, from televisions to tractors. He combines and extends existing methods of measurement, drawing data from industry sources, Consumer Reports, and the venerable Sears catalog.

Beyond his important finding that the American economy is more sound than officially recognized, Gordon provides a wealth of anecdotes tracing the postwar history of technological progress. Bolstering his argument that improved quality must be accurately measured, Gordon notes, for example, that today's mid-range personal computers outperform the multimillion-dollar mainframes of the 1970s. This remarkable book will be essential reading for economists and those in the business community.

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The Measurement of Labor Cost
Edited by Jack E. Triplett
University of Chicago Press, 1983
Measuring costs of labor as a portion of total production costs has never before been treated so thoroughly or so thoughtfully. Moreover, contrary to most recent labor research, this book focuses on the demand side—the employer's point of view—and the behavior studied is employer behavior.

An introductory essay by the editor provides a useful guide to current thought in the analysis of labor cost. Other papers give new insights into problems encountered in accounting for the nonwage elements of labor compensation, the effect of pensions and other benefits, and the wage-measurement questions raised by incomes policies. In addition, there is a wealth of valuable new data on labor costs in the United States.

Labor economists, statisticians, econometric modelers, and advisers to government and industry will welcome this up-to-date and comprehensive treatment of the costs of production.

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The Measurement of Meaning
Charles E. Osgood, George J. Suci, and Percy H. Tannenbaum
University of Illinois Press, 1957
 In this pioneering study, the authors
      deal with the nature and theory of meaning and present a new, objective
      method for its measurement which they call the semantic differential.
      This instrument is not a specific test, but rather a general technique of
      measurement that can be adapted to a wide variety of problems in such areas
      as clinical psychology, social psychology, linguistics, mass communications,
      esthetics, and political science. The core of the book is the authors' description,
      application, and evaluation of this important tool and its far-reaching
      implications for empirical research.

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The Measurement of Modernism
A Study of Values in Brazil and Mexico
By Joseph A. Kahl
University of Texas Press, 1968

One of the most interesting questions that can be raised about the twentieth century world concerns the degree to which industrialization created a common culture for all peoples. Reported here are the results of an empirical investigation designed to produce instruments to measure those personal values that have been central variables in the theory of modernization of societies.

The purpose of Joseph Kahl’s research is primarily methodological: to advance the description and measurement of those value orientations used by men to organize their occupational careers. It seeks to delineate and measure a set of values that represents a “modern” view of work and life.

The working laboratory was Brazil and Mexico, two countries undergoing rapid industrialization. More than six hundred men in Brazil and more than seven hundred in Mexico responded to questionnaires. In addition, over twenty-five men in each country were asked to sit beside a tape recorder and talk freely of their worldviews. The respondents were divided between inhabitants of the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Mexico City and those who lived in provincial towns of fewer than ten thousand inhabitants. The samples included manual and nonmanual employees.

The results showed that the main variable predicting whether or not a man would tend toward modernism was his social-class position. Middle-class men were much more modern in outlook than working-class men. Residence in a metropolis rather than in a small town also increased modernism, though to a lesser extent. Differences between Brazil and Mexico (and, indeed, the United States) were found to be surprisingly small, of considerably less weight than position in the social structure in predicting value orientations.

The author addresses himself primarily to sociologists and their students who are themselves studying aspects of socio-economic development. His findings, however, cannot fail to be of interest and benefit to social scientists of various disciplines and to all who are concerned with the process of development—planners at the national and local levels, demographers, and businesspeople.


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Measurement of Nontariff Barriers
Alan V. Deardorff and Robert M. Stern, Editors
University of Michigan Press, 1998
As tariffs on imports of manufactures have been reduced as a result of multi-lateral trade negotiations, interest in the extent to which existing nontariff barriers may distort and restrict international trade is growing. Accurate and reliable measures are needed in order to address the issues involving the use and impacts of nontariff barriers. This study assesses currently available methods for quantifying such barriers and makes recommendations as to those methods that can be most effectively employed. The authors focus both on the conceptual issues arising in the measurement of the different types of nontariff barriers and on the applied research that has been carried out in studies prepared by country members of the OECD Pilot Group and others seeking to quantify the barriers.
Nontariff barriers include quotas, variable levies, voluntary export restraints, government procurement regulations, domestic subsidies, and antidumping and countervailing duty measures. The authors discuss the many different methods available for measuring the effects of these and other nontariff barriers. Illustrative results are presented for industrial OECD countries, including Australia, Canada, Germany, Norway, the European Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Finally, the authors offer guideline principles and recommend procedures for measuring different types of nontariff barriers.
Economists, political scientists, government officials, and lawyers involved in international trade will find this an invaluable resource for understanding and measuring NTBs.
Alan V. Deardorff and Robert M. Stern are Professors of Economics and Public Policy, University of Michigan.

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The Measurement of Saving, Investment, and Wealth
Edited by Robert E. Lipsey and Helen Stone Tice
University of Chicago Press, 1989
There is probably no concept other than saving for which U.S. official agencies issue annual estimates that differ by more than a third, as they have done for net household saving, or for which reputable scholars claim that the correct measure is close to ten times the officially published one. Yet despite agreement among economists and policymakers on the importance of this measure, huge inconsistencies persist.

Contributors to this volume investigate ways to improve aggregate and sectoral saving and investment estimates and analyze microdata from recent household wealth surveys. They provide analyses of National Income and Product Account (NIPA) and Flow-of-Funds measures and of saving and survey-based wealth estimates. Conceptual and methodological questions are discussed regarding long-term trends in the U.S. wealth inequality, age-wealth profiles, pensions and wealth distribution, and biases in inferences about life-cycle changes in saving and wealth. Some new assessments are offered for investment in human and nonhuman capital, the government contribution to national wealth, NIPA personal and corporate saving, and banking imputation.

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The Measurement of Urban Home Environment
Validation and Standardization of the Minnesota Home Status Index
Alice Leahy
University of Minnesota Press, 1936
The Measurement of Urban Home Environment was first published in 1936. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.No. 11. Institute of Child Welfare Monograph SeriesThis volume contributes a validation and standardization of The Minnesota Home Status Index; a scale constructed by Professor Alice Leahy that gives numerical expression to the nature and extent of variation existing in living conditions of urban homes.Leahy describes the methods used in constructing the index and discusses the significance of her findings. Also included are accounts of previous studies in this field, bibliography, and appendix of schedules used in Leahy’s investigation.

front cover of Measuring and Accounting for Innovation in the Twenty-First Century
Measuring and Accounting for Innovation in the Twenty-First Century
Edited by Carol Corrado, Jonathan Haskel, Javier Miranda, and Daniel Sichel
University of Chicago Press, 2021
Measuring innovation is a challenging task, both for researchers and for national statisticians, and it is increasingly important in light of the ongoing digital revolution. National accounts and many other economic statistics were designed before the emergence of the digital economy and the growth in importance of intangible capital. They do not yet fully capture the wide range of innovative activity that is observed in modern economies. This volume examines how to measure innovation, track its effects on economic activity and on prices, and understand how it has changed the structure of production processes, labor markets, and organizational form and operation in business. The contributors explore new approaches to and data sources for measurement, such as collecting data for a particular innovation as opposed to a firm and using trademarks for tracking innovation. They also consider the connections between university-based R&D and business start-ups and the potential impacts of innovation on income distribution. The research suggests strategies for expanding current measurement frameworks to better capture innovative activity, including developing more detailed tracking of global value chains to identify innovation across time and space and expanding the measurement of innovation’s impacts on GDP in fields such as consumer content delivery and cloud computing. 

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Measuring and Modeling Health Care Costs
Edited by Ana Aizcorbe, Colin Baker, Ernst R. Berndt, and David M. Cutler
University of Chicago Press, 2018
Health care costs represent a nearly 18% of U.S. gross domestic product and 20% of government spending. While there is detailed information on where these health care dollars are spent, there is much less evidence on how this spending affects health. 
The research in Measuring and Modeling Health Care Costs seeks to connect our knowledge of expenditures with what we are able to measure of results, probing questions of methodology, changes in the pharmaceutical industry, and the shifting landscape of physician practice. The research in this volume investigates, for example, obesity’s effect on health care spending, the effect of generic pharmaceutical releases on the market, and the disparity between disease-based and population-based spending measures. This vast and varied volume applies a range of economic tools to the analysis of health care and health outcomes.

Practical and descriptive, this new volume in the Studies in Income and Wealth series is full of insights relevant to health policy students and specialists alike.

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Measuring Economic Sustainability and Progress
Edited by Dale W. Jorgenson, J. Steven Landefeld, and Paul Schreyer
University of Chicago Press, 2014
Since the Great Depression, researchers and statisticians have recognized the need for more extensive methods for measuring economic growth and sustainability. The recent recession renewed commitments to closing long-standing gaps in economic measurement, including those related to sustainability and well-being.

The latest in the NBER’s influential Studies in Income and Wealth series, which has played a key role in the development of national account statistics in the United States and other nations, this volume explores collaborative solutions between academics, policy researchers, and official statisticians to some of today’s most important economic measurement challenges. Contributors to this volume extend past research on the integration and extension of national accounts to establish an even more comprehensive understanding of the distribution of economic growth and its impact on well-being, including health, human capital, and the environment. The research contributions assess, among other topics, specific conceptual and empirical proposals for extending national accounts.

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Motion Vision
Design of compact motion sensing solutions for navigation of autonomous systems
J. Kolodko
The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2005
Segmenting the environment surrounding an autonomous vehicle into coherently moving regions is a vital first step towards intelligent autonomous navigation. Without this temporal information, navigation becomes a simple obstacle avoidance scheme that is inappropriate in highly dynamic environments such as roadways and places where many people congregate.

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Price Index Concepts and Measurement
Edited by W. Erwin Diewert, John Greenlees, and Charles R. Hulten
University of Chicago Press, 2009

Although inflation is much feared for its negative effects on the economy, how to measure it is a matter of considerable debate that has important implications for interest rates, monetary supply, and investment and spending decisions. Underlying many of these issues is the concept of the Cost-of-Living Index (COLI) and its controversial role as the methodological foundation for the Consumer Price Index (CPI).

Price Index Concepts and Measurements brings together leading experts to address the many questions involved in conceptualizing and measuring inflation. They evaluate the accuracy of COLI, a Cost-of-Goods Index, and a variety of other methodological frameworks as the bases for consumer price construction.


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Radio Frequency and Microwave Power Measurement
Alan E. Fantom
The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 1990
The need to measure electrical power is common to many branches of science and engineering. This book presents a wide-ranging survey of the many types of radio-frequency and microwave power meter and the techniques which are used for calibrating and intercomparing them. The frequency range is 1 MHz to 200 GHz.

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Scale Theory
A Nondisciplinary Inquiry
Joshua DiCaglio
University of Minnesota Press, 2021

A pioneering call for a new understanding of scale across the humanities

How is it possible that you are—simultaneously—cells, atoms, a body, quarks, a component in an ecological network, a moment in the thermodynamic dispersal of the sun, and an element in the gravitational whirl of galaxies? In this way, we routinely transform reality into things already outside of direct human experience, things we hardly comprehend even as we speak of DNA, climate effects, toxic molecules, and viruses. How do we find ourselves with these disorienting layers of scale? Enter Scale Theory, which provides a foundational theory of scale that explains how scale works, the parameters of scalar thinking, and how scale refigures reality—that teaches us how to think in terms of scale, no matter where our interests may lie. 

Joshua DiCaglio takes us on a fascinating journey through six thought experiments that provide clarifying yet provocative definitions for scale and new ways of thinking about classic concepts ranging from unity to identity. Because our worldviews and philosophies are largely built on nonscalar experience, he then takes us slowly through the ways scale challenges and reconfigures objects, subjects, and relations. 

Scale Theory is, in a sense, nondisciplinary—weaving together a dizzying array of sciences (from nanoscience to ecology) with discussions from the humanities (from philosophy to rhetoric). In the process, a curious pattern emerges: attempts to face the significance of scale inevitably enter terrain closer to mysticism than science. Rather than dismiss this connection, DiCaglio examines the reasons for it, redefining mysticism in terms of scale and integrating contemplative philosophies into the discussion. The result is a powerful account of the implications and challenges of scale, attuned to the way scale transforms both reality and ourselves.


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Sea Level
A History
Wilko Graf von Hardenberg
University of Chicago Press, 2024
Traces a commonplace average—sea level—from its origins charting land to its emergence as a potent symbol of global warming.
A steady drumbeat of news reports warns of rising sea levels spurred by climate change. Waters inch ever higher around islands and coasts, radically altering delicate ecosystems and threatening the communities who live there. The baseline for these accounts—sea level—may not seem remarkable, given its long-time use as a measure of altitude. But as Wilko Graf von Hardenberg reveals in this sweeping book, the history of this type of measurement is intertwined with national ambitions and rooted in an evolving relationship between people and the ocean. Mean sea level is not a natural occurrence—it is the product of evolving technologies and those who employ them.
Sea Level provides a detailed and innovative account of how mean sea level was first defined, how it became a prime reference point for surveying and cartography, and how it emerged as a powerful mark of humanity’s impact on the earth. With Hardenberg as our guide, we traverse the muddy spaces of Venice and Amsterdam, the coasts of the Baltic Sea, the Panama and Suez canals, and the Himalayan foothills. Born out of Enlightenment studies of physics and quantification, sea level became key to state-sponsored public works, colonial expansion, Cold War development of satellite technologies, and acknowledging the climate crisis. Mean sea level, Hardenberg reveals, has always been contingent on people, places, and politics. As global warming transforms the globe, Hardenberg reminds us that a holistic understanding of the ocean and its changes requires a multiplicity of reference points.
A fascinating story that revises our assumptions about land and ocean alike, Sea Level calls for a more nuanced understanding of this baseline, one that allows for new methods and interpretations as we navigate an era of unstable seas.

front cover of Systems with Small Dissipation
Systems with Small Dissipation
V. B. Braginsky, V. P. Mitrofanov, and V. I. Panov
University of Chicago Press, 1985
Electromagnetic and mechanical oscillators are crucial in such diverse fields as electrical engineering, microwave technology, optical technology, and experimental physics. For example, such oscillators are the key elements in instruments for detecting extremely weak mechanical forces and electromagnetic signals are essential to highly stable standards of time and frequency. The central problem in developing such instruments is to construct oscillators that are as perfectly simple harmonic as possible; the largest obstacle is the oscillator's dissipation and the fluctuating forces associated with it.

This book, first published in Russian in 1981 and updated with new data for this English edition, is a treatise on the sources of dissipation and other defects in mechanical and electromagnetic oscillators and on practical techniques for minimizing such defects. Written by a team of researchers from Moscow State University who are leading experts in the field, the book is a virtual encyclopedia of theoretical formulas, experimental techniques, and practical lore derived from twenty-five years of experience. Intended for the experimenter who wishes to construct near-perfect instrumentation, the book provides information on everything from the role of phonon-phonon scattering as a fundamental source of dissipation to the effectiveness of a thin film of pork fat in reducing the friction between a support wire and a mechanically oscillating sapphire crystal.

The researchers that V. B. Braginsky has led since the mid-1960s are best known in the West for their contributions to the technology of gravitational-wave detection, their experimental search for quarks, their test of the equivalency principle, and their invention of new experimental techniques for high-precision measurement, including "quantum nondemolition movements." Here, for the first time, they provide a thorough overview of the practical knowledge and experimental methods that have earned them a worldwide reputation for ingenuity, talent, and successful technique.

front cover of Technologies and Techniques in Gait Analysis
Technologies and Techniques in Gait Analysis
Past, present and future
Nachiappan Chockalingam
The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2022
Gait analysis is the study of the walking or running pattern of an individual. This can include spatial and temporal measurements such as step length, stride length and speed along with angular measurements of various joints and the interplay between various parts like the foot, hip, pelvis or spine when walking. Gait analysis can be used to assess clinical conditions and design effective rehabilitation; for example, following limb injury or amputation, or other disorders such as a stroke or Parkinson's diagnosis. It can be used to influence intervention decisions, such as whether a patient should undergo surgery, further physiotherapy, or begin a particular treatment regime. Gait analysis can also be used in sports science to monitor and review performance and technique.

logo for The Institution of Engineering and Technology
Ultrawideband Radar Measurements
Analysis and processing
L.Y. Astanin
The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 1997
Interest in the applications of ultrawideband (UWB) radar systems is increasing rapidly all over the world. This is evident from the number of monographs recently published on the subject and from the many papers presented at international conferences on the general problems involved in UWB radar and on its promising new applications. Conventional (classical) methods seem to have exhausted their potential and studies in the field are undergoing a profound change. This book presents some of the novel approaches to radar system analysis now being investigated.

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